Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is Koji culture?
  2. What is a whole food?
  3. What is iron deficiency?
  4. What are organic and inorganic iron sources?
  5. Which is the most common form of iron used for supplementation/fortification?
  6. What is slow release iron?
  7. What is bioavailability?
  8. What is the difference between Ultimine™ Koji Fermented Iron and other forms of organic irons?
  9. What is transferrin saturation?
  10. What is iron overload?
  11. What is NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?
  12. What is the effective dose for NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?
  13. Where can I buy NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?
  14. How do I find out more?
  15. References

Answers…

  1. What is Koji culture?

    Koji culture is a microorganism, Aspergillus oryzae, that has been used over 2000 years in Asia to produce miso, soy sauce, and sake. 1 It is also generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration for the production of food-grade enzymes and soy sauce. Learn more about koji culture.

  2. What is a whole food?

    It is a food that is minimally processed. Koji fermented mineral is a whole food because during and after the fermentation process, koji biomass remains intact. Its macro composition contains 30-40% protein, 25-30% carbohydrates (mostly as fiber), minerals and water. The only difference between koji fermented mineral and koji culture is the higher concentration of minerals in the fungus biomass.

  3. What is iron deficiency?

    Iron deficiency is defined as a low iron storage in the body. The standard methodology to determine iron deficiency is to measure amount of ferritin in blood. Ferritin is a protein that storages iron. Serum ferritin levels below 20 ng/mL in men and women indicate iron deficient status.

  4. What are organic and inorganic iron sources?

    One of the factors that influences the bioavailability of dietary iron in humans is the physical-chemical form of the iron. In the Earth’s crust, iron is mainly found as ferric oxide and its salts. These salts are poorly absorbed by humans and have only become available through their incorporation into plants and animals by bacteria and fungi.2,3 Through this mechanism, ferrous and ferric salts are now common in our foods. Non-heme iron derived from plants such as inorganic ferrous Fe(II) and ferric Fe(III) salts, are absorbed into enterocytes through the divalent metal transporter 1. However ferric iron must be first converted to ferrous Fe(II) by duodenal cytochrome b before it gets absorbed.4
    Besides inorganic salts, foods may also contain iron bound to proteins, peptides, amino acids and carbohydrates. These are described as organic forms of iron; some examples include heme-iron (myoglobin) derived from meat, organic chelates and non-heme iron from bacteria and fungi. 4,5 Ultimine™ Iron is fermented organic iron that is stored within inactive koji culture cells.

  5. Which is the most common form of iron used for supplementation/fortification?

    Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) is one of the most commonly used sources of iron to combat iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). The preferred preventive option in third-world countries is the fortification of grain-based foods. Despite this long-held understanding of iron’s essential role in the diet, IDA remains the leading cause of malnutrition in the world.6 The latter has been partially attributed to the gastroenterological side effects of high doses of FeSO4, its low absorption in the presence of phytate-rich grain diets, lack of accessibility to heme-iron sources and negative organoleptic impacts of some iron sources to foods.7

  6. What is slow release iron?

    Slow release iron takes longer to appear in the blood that fast release iron. Our clinical studies have shown that Ultimine™ koji fermented iron is slower release than ferrous sulfate, but it is equally bioavailable.

  7. What is bioavailability?

    It is the ability of the human body to absorb and utilize macro (i.e proteins) and micronutrients (i.e. minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals). Our clinical studies have shown that the iron stored in koji fermented iron is absorbed by the body and gets incorporated into the red blood cells as effectively as ferrous sulfate.

  8. What is the difference between Ultimine™ Koji Fermented Iron and other forms of organic irons?

    Ultimine™ is a naturally derived source of whole-food minerals, clinically proven to be bioavailable, slow release and easy on the body. It is produced under proprietary (patented/patent pending) koji culture fermentation in an NSF cGMP, Halal and Kosher certified manufacturing facility.

  9. What is transferrin saturation?

    It is the ability of transferrin, a protein in-charged of transporting iron, to bind iron in the blood. During normal iron status, transferrin saturation is between 20-40% in women. When iron is quickly release into the blood, it can overcome the ability of transferrin to bind it, thus transferrin saturation will be high as well as the presence of free iron in the blood (iron overload).

  10. What is iron overload?

    It happens when transferrin, a protein in-charged of transporting iron in the blood, becomes saturated and cannot bind more iron. Non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) is free, highly reactive, iron that causes oxidative stress, cellular aging and eventually chronic disease.

  11. What is NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?

    It is a unique, science-based, whole food iron source in capsule form. The product contains Ultimine™ Koji Fermented Iron and rice flour (filler). Koji Fermented iron is clinically proven to be highly bioavailable, slow release and easy on the body. It is vegetarian, non-GMO, non-soy, halal and kosher and manufactured under high quality standards.

  12. What is the effective dose for NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?

    The results from a stable isotope study in humans conducted at Iowa State University by Dr. Manju Reddy and published in Current Development in Nutrition7 showed that Ultimine™ 10 mg iron is as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate at the same dose. The most commonly used in supplements is 18 mg iron/day for women. One capsule of NeuTerre™ Iron provides 100 % DV (18 mg) of iron for women.

  13. Where can I buy NeuTerre™ Whole Food Iron?

    You can purchase Neuterre on our website - visit our product page to learn more.

  14. How do I find out more?

    For more information contact our customer services department.

  15. References

    1. Murooka Y, Yamshita M: Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2008, 35:791-798.
    2. Drechsel H, Jung G: Peptide Siderophores. J Peptide Sci 1998, 4:147-181.
    3. Berdbanier CD, Zempleni J: Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2009.
    4. Kohgo Y, Ikuta K, Ohtake T, Torimoto Y, Kato J: Body iron metabolism and pathophysiology of iron overload. Int J Hematol 2008, 88:7-15.
    5. Aggett PJ: Iron. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Edition edition. Edited by John W. Erdman Jr. IAM, and Steven H. Ziesel: International Life Sciences Institute and Willey-Black Well; 2012: 506-520.
    6. WHO Global Database on Anemia. www.who.int/nutrition/publication/micronutrients/anemia. Worldwide prevalence of anemia (1993-2005).
    7. Manju B Reddy, Seth M Armah, Jeanne W Stewart,and Kimberly O O’Brien. Iron Absorption from Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae Is Similar to Ferrous Sulfate in Healthy Female Subjects. Curr Dev Nutr 2018;2:nzy004.